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The key to writing beautiful musicâraise your bar with Sibelius. See how. THE TOOLS THAT POWER AN INDUSTRY Create. The experiment found that texting while driving was more dangerous than being drunk. In , the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute released the results of an month study that involved placing cameras inside the cabs of more than long-haul trucks, which recorded the drivers over a combined driving distance of three million miles. The study concluded that when the drivers were texting, their risk of crashing was 23 times greater than when not texting.
Due to the proliferation of smart phone applications performed while walking, "texting while walking" or "wexting" is the increasing practice of people being transfixed to their mobile device without looking in any direction but their personal screen while walking.
First coined reference in in New York from Rentrak's chief client officer  when discussing time spent with media and various media usage metrics. Text messaging among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive distraction and reduced situation awareness, and may lead to increases in unsafe behaviour leading to injury and death.
It is unclear which processes may be affected by distraction, which types of distraction may affect which cognitive processes, and how individual differences may affect the influence of distraction. According to them, the addition of texting while walking with vision occluded increases the demands placed on the working memory system resulting in gait disruptions. Texting on a phone distracts participants, even when the texting task used is a relatively simple one. investigated the effect of other cognitive tasks, such as engaging in conversations or cognitive tasks on a phone, and found that participants actually have reduced visual awareness.
The act of texting itself seems to impair pedestrians' visual awareness. It appears that the distraction produced by texting is a combination of both a cognitive and visual perceptual distraction. supported some of these findings, particularly that those who text while walking significantly alter their gait. However, they also found that the gait pattern texters adopted was slower and more "protective", and consequently did not increase obstacle contact or tripping in a typical pedestrian context.
proposing to use machine learning to specifically detect incoming vehicles. Sexting is slang for the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive content between mobile devices using SMS. Sexting was reported as early as in The Sunday Telegraph Magazine ,  constituting a trend in the creative use of SMS to excite another with alluring messages throughout the day. Although sexting often takes place consensually between two people, it can also occur against the wishes of a person who is the subject of the content.
Celebrities such as Miley Cyrus , Vanessa Hudgens , and Adrienne Bailon have been victims of such abuses of sexting. com  suggested a trend of sexting and other seductive online content being readily shared between teens.
One in five teen girls surveyed 22 per cent —and 11 per cent of teen girls aged 13—16 years old—say they have electronically sent, or posted online, nude or semi-nude images of themselves. One-third 33 per cent of teen boys and one-quarter 25 per cent of teen girls say they were shown private nude or semi-nude images. According to the survey, sexually suggestive messages text, e-mail, and instant messaging were even more common than images, with 39 per cent of teens having sent or posted such messages, and half of the teens 50 per cent having received them.
A study that has received wide international media attention was conducted at the University of Utah Department of Psychology by Donald S. Strassberg, Ryan Kelly McKinnon, Michael Sustaíta and Jordan Rullo. They surveyed teenagers ages 14—18 and found that nearly 20 per cent of the students said they had sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone, and nearly twice as many said that they had received a sexually explicit picture.
Of those receiving such a picture, over 25 per cent indicated that they had forwarded it to others. In addition, of those who had sent a sexually explicit picture, over a third had done so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences if they got caught. Students who had sent a picture by cell phone were more likely than others to find the activity acceptable. The authors conclude: "These results argue for educational efforts such as cell phone safety assemblies, awareness days, integration into class curriculum and teacher training, designed to raise awareness about the potential consequences of sexting among young people.
Text messaging has affected students academically by creating an easier way to cheat on exams. In December , a dozen students were caught cheating on an accounting exam through the use of text messages on their mobile phones. According to Okada , most Japanese mobile phones can send and receive long text messages of between and characters with graphics, video, audio, and Web links. Further, published research has established that students who text during college lectures have impaired memories of the lecture material compared to students who do not.
Spreading rumors and gossip by text message, using text messages to bully individuals, or forwarding texts that contain defamatory content is an issue of great concern for parents and schools.
Text "bullying" of this sort can cause distress and damage reputations. In some cases, individuals who are bullied online have committed suicide. Harding and Rosenberg argue that the urge to forward text messages can be difficult to resist, describing text messages as "loaded weapons". When a student sends an email that contains phonetic abbreviations and acronyms that are common in text messaging e.
In a study by Lewandowski and Harrington , participants read a student's email sent to a professor that either contained text-messaging abbreviations gr8, How R U? or parallel text in standard English great, How are you? Specifically, abbreviation users were seen as less intelligent, responsible, motivated, studious, dependable, and hard-working. These findings suggest that the nature of a student's email communication can influence how others perceive the student and their work.
However, students have become aware of the reality that using these textisms and adaptations can negatively impact their professionalism. Drouin and Davis surveyed American undergraduates in and found that three quarters of participants believed the use of textisms were not appropriate in formal messaging and writing.
Text messaging has been a subject of interest for police forces around the world. One of the issues of concern to law enforcement agencies is the use of encrypted text messages. In , a British company developed a program called Fortress SMS which used bit AES encryption to protect SMS messages. For example, Swedish police retrieved deleted texts from a cult member who claimed she committed a double murder based on forwarded texts she received.
Several thieves have been caught and children have been found using the SMS Alerts. The service has been expanding to other cities. The Boston Police Department asks citizens to send texts to make anonymous crime tips. Under some interpretations of sharia law , husbands can divorce their wives by the pronouncement of talaq.
In , a court in Malaysia upheld such a divorce pronouncement which was transmitted via SMS. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in that under the state constitution, police require a warrant before obtaining access to text messages without consent. Texting has been used on a number of occasions with the result of the gathering of large aggressive crowds. SMS messaging drew a crowd to Cronulla Beach in Sydney resulting in the Cronulla riots.
Not only were text messages circulating in the Sydney area but in other states as well Daily Telegraph. The volume of such text messages and e-mails also increased in the wake of the riot. Sutherland Shire Mayor directly blamed heavily circulated SMS messages for the unrest. The Narre Warren Incident, when a group of party goers attended a party at Narre Warren in Melbourne, Australia, and rioted in January , also was a response of communication being spread by SMS and Myspace.
Officials say it is an easy way of contacting the community or individuals for meetings or events. Between and the U. secretly created and funded a Twitter -like service for Cubans called ZunZuneo , initially based on mobile phone text message service and later with an internet interface.
The service was funded by the U. Agency for International Development through its Office of Transition Initiatives , who utilized contractors and front companies in the Cayman Islands, Spain and Ireland. A longer-term objective was to organize "smart mobs" that might "renegotiate the balance of power between the state and society.
At its peak ZunZuneo had 40, Cuban users, but the service closed as financially unsustainable when U. funding was stopped. Text messaging has affected the political world.
American campaigns find that text messaging is a much easier, cheaper way of getting to the voters than the door-to-door approach. The popular campaign against him was widely reported to have been coordinated with SMS chain letters. During the U. Democratic and Republican National Conventions, protesters used an SMS-based organizing tool called TXTmob to get to opponents. Text messaging has helped politics by promoting campaigns.
On 20 January , President Joseph Estrada of the Philippines became the first head of state in history to lose power to a smart mob. These people have organized themselves and coordinated their actions through text messaging. They were able to bring down a government without having to use any weapons or violence. Through text messaging, their plans and ideas were communicated to others and successfully implemented.
Also, this move encouraged the military to withdraw their support from the regime, and as a result, the Estrada government fell. Text messaging is a rapidly growing trend in Healthcare.
Where messages could be saved to a phone indefinitely, patient information could be subject to theft or loss, and could be seen by other unauthorized persons. The HIPAA privacy rule requires that any text message involving a medical decision must be available for the patient to access, meaning that any texts that are not documented in an EMR system could be a HIPAA violation.
The excessive use of the thumb for pressing keys on mobile devices has led to a high rate of a form of repetitive strain injury termed "BlackBerry thumb" although this refers to strain developed on older Blackberry devices, which had a scroll wheel on the side of the phone.
An inflammation of the tendons in the thumb caused by constant text-messaging is also called text-messager's thumb, or texting tenosynovitis. Increasing cases of Internet addiction are now also being linked to text messaging, as mobile phones are now more likely to have e-mail and Web capabilities to complement the ability to text. Texting etiquette refers to what is considered appropriate texting behaviour. One example from the site is: "Keep your message brief.
No one wants to have an entire conversation with you by texting when you could just call him or her instead. Typing a text message in all capital letters will appear as though you are shouting at the recipient, and should be avoided.
Expectations for etiquette may differ depending on various factors. For example, expectations for appropriate behaviour have been found to differ markedly between the U. and India. In The M-Factor: How the Millennial Generation Is Rocking the Workplace , Lynne Lancaster and David Stillman note that younger Americans often do not consider it rude to answer their cell or begin texting in the middle of a face-to-face conversation with someone else, while older people, less used to the behavior and the accompanying lack of eye contact or attention, find this to be disruptive and ill-mannered.
In , an increasing trend towards spamming mobile phone users through SMS prompted cellular-service carriers to take steps against the practice, before it became a widespread problem. No major spamming incidents involving SMS had been reported as of March [update] , but the existence of mobile phone spam  has been noted by industry watchdogs including Consumer Reports magazine and the Utility Consumers' Action Network UCAN.
In SMiShing, users receive SMS messages posing to be from a company, enticing users to phone premium-rate numbers or reply with personal information. Similar concerns were reported by PhonepayPlus, a consumer watchdog in the United Kingdom, in Concerns have been voiced  over the excessive cost of off-plan text messaging in the United States. With service providers gaining more customers and expanding their capacity, their overhead costs should be decreasing, not increasing.
In , text messaging generated nearly 70 billion dollars in revenue, as reported by Gartner, industry analysts, three times as much as Hollywood box office sales in World figures showed that over a trillion text messages were sent in Although major cellphone providers deny any collusion, fees for out-of-package text messages have increased, doubling from 10 to 20 cents in the United States between and alone.
While text messaging is still a growing market, traditional SMS is becoming increasingly challenged by alternative messaging services which are available on smartphones with data connections. These services are much cheaper and offer more functionality like exchanging multimedia content e. photos, videos or audio notes and group messaging. Especially in western countries some of these services attract more and more users. Consumer SMS should not be used for confidential communication.
The contents of common SMS messages are known to the network operator's systems and personnel. Therefore, consumer SMS is not an appropriate technology for secure communications.
The advantage of this international termination model is the ability to route data directly through SS7 , which gives the provider visibility of the complete path of the SMS. This means SMS messages can be sent directly to and from recipients without having to go through the SMS-C of other mobile operators.
This approach reduces the number of mobile operators that handle the message; however, it should not be considered as an end-to-end secure communication, as the content of the message is exposed to the SMS gateway provider.
An alternative approach is to use end-to-end security software that runs on both the sending and receiving device, where the original text message is transmitted in encrypted form as a consumer SMS. By using key rotation, the encrypted text messages stored under data retention laws at the network operator cannot be decrypted even if one of the devices is compromised. A problem with this approach is that communicating devices needs to run compatible software.
Failure rates without backward notification can be high between carriers. Differences in the character sets used for coding can cause a text message sent from one country to another to become unreadable. The Guinness Book of World Records has a world record for text messaging, currently held by Sonja Kristiansen of Norway.
Kristiansen keyed in the official text message, as established by Guinness, in In reality, they seldom attack a human. His record of Elliot Nicholls of Dunedin, New Zealand, currently holds the world record for the fastest blindfolded text messaging. A record of a letter text in 45 seconds while blindfolded was set on 17 November , beating the old record of 1-minute 26 seconds set by an Italian in September His accomplishments were first in the World Records Academy and later followed up by Ripley's Believe It Or Not Seeing Is Believing.
He has been acknowledged by The Universal Records Database for the most text messages in a single month; however, this has since been broken twice and as of was listed as messages by Fred Lindgren. In January , LG Electronics sponsored an international competition, the LG Mobile World Cup , to determine the fastest pair of texters.
The winners were a team from South Korea, Ha Mok-min and Bae Yeong-ho. As of , best time listed on Game Center for that paragraph is A few competitions have been held between expert Morse code operators and expert SMS users. For example, many Nokia mobile phones have an option to beep "S M S" in Morse code when it receives a short message.
Some of these phones could also play the Nokia slogan "Connecting people" in Morse code as a message tone. Many sports arenas now offer a number where patrons can text report security concerns, like drunk or unruly fans, or safety issues like spills. For instance, the patron doesn't need to leave his seat and miss the event in order to report something important.
Also, disruptive fans can be reported with relative anonymity. For instance, a single complaint in one section about an unruly fan can be addressed when convenient, while multiple complaints by several different patrons can be acted upon immediately.
In this context, "tattle texting" refers to an automatic text sent by the computer in an automobile, because a preset condition was met. Employers can also use the service to monitor their corporate vehicles. The technology is still new and currently only available on a few car models. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Act of typing and sending a brief, digital message. For the TV series, see Pop-Up Video. For chatting in general, see online chat.
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Main article: SMS language. Main article: Texting while driving. Main article: Sexting. Main article: Cyberbullying. Main article: BlackBerry thumb. Further information: Mobile phone spam. How Mobile Technology is Changing Our Culture.
Telecommunication Journal. Retrieved 18 May Just over fifty years ago, in October , the Deutsche Reichspost as it was then known, opened the world's first public teleprinter network.
Network World. IDG Network World Inc. ISSN Retrieved 29 December Telex originated in Germany and rapidly expanded to other countries after World War II. Retrieved 2 February Almost every time, the messages amount to fewer than characters — what would become the limit of early text messages — and thus the concept for the perfect-length, rapid-fire 'short message' was born. Short Message Service, the Creation of Personal Global Text Messaging.
ISBN Introduction to CCITT Signalling System No. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 December The Times of India. Airwide Solutions. Archived from the original on 19 November In December , Airwide was responsible for delivering the first ever SMS.
The message, delivered on the Vodafone network, said 'Merry Christmas' [ The New York Times. In Anandam P. Kavoori and Noah Arceneaux ed. The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation. New York: Peter Lang. area - First system in nation offers digital challenge to cellular phone industry". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 29 March Ozeki SMS wiki.
Archived from the original on 30 March Archived from the original on 6 March CBS NEWS. Retrieved 19 March Archived from the original on 5 April Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Retrieved 23 January Rice University. com news December ". Retrieved 10 February The Independent.
Retrieved on 5 April Psychiatric Services. doi : PMID HSL Mobile. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 4 February The Register. Customize output settings, work faster with distributed encoding, and easily package your film for the iTunes Store. Learn more about Compressor. The Mac App Store features rich editorial content and great apps for Mac.
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